TitleDe novo synthesis of a sunscreen compound in vertebrates.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsOsborn, AR, Almabruk, KH, Holzwarth, G, Asamizu, S, LaDu, J, Kean, KM, P Karplus, A, Tanguay, RL, Bakalinsky, AT, Mahmud, T
JournalElife
Volume4
Date Published2015 May 12
ISSN2050-084X
KeywordsAmino Acids, Animals, Cyclohexanols, Fishes, Fungi, Organisms, Genetically Modified, Radiation-Protective Agents, Ultraviolet Rays, Vertebrates
Abstract

Ultraviolet-protective compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and related gadusols produced by some bacteria, fungi, algae, and marine invertebrates, are critical for the survival of reef-building corals and other marine organisms exposed to high-solar irradiance. These compounds have also been found in marine fish, where their accumulation is thought to be of dietary or symbiont origin. In this study, we report the unexpected discovery that fish can synthesize gadusol de novo and that the analogous pathways are also present in amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Furthermore, we demonstrate that engineered yeast containing the fish genes can produce and secrete gadusol. The discovery of the gadusol pathway in vertebrates provides a platform for understanding its role in these animals, and the possibility of engineering yeast to efficiently produce a natural sunscreen and antioxidant presents an avenue for its large-scale production for possible use in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

DOI10.7554/eLife.05919
Alternate JournalElife
PubMed ID25965179
PubMed Central IDPMC4426668
Grant ListP30 ES000210 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States