|Title||Disease incidence and ascospore dispersal from cut hazelnut branches colonized by Anisogramma anomala.|
|Year of Publication||2014|
|Authors||Heckert, S, Pscheidt, J, Cluskey, SA|
Hazelnut branches bearing stromata of Anisogramma anomala cut in December (2009 and 2010) were compared with branches cut prior to bud break in March to investigate these sources of inoculum. Branches were placed into brush piles (sources). Spore traps and potted hazelnut trees were placed adjacent to each source, 6.4 m upwind and downwind, and 20 m downwind from each source. Significantly more ascospores were detected near sources of branches cut in March compared with December in 2010 however, no differences were detected between pruning treatments in 2011. Ascospore viability, as assessed by trypan blue stain, averaged 50% for both pruning times each season. Significantly more ascospores were detected 6.4 m downwind compared with 6.4 m upwind or 20 m downwind of a source both years. All potted trees exposed to branches from both pruning treatments within sources became diseased both years. The proportion of potted trees that became infected was greater for the downwind group than the upwind for both years, suggesting that ascospores were dispersed beyond the rain splash dispersal range of sources. Ascospores from diseased branches pruned in December or March remained viable, infectious and were dispersed at least 20 m downwind.