|Current Trends in Biotechnology: From Genome Sequence to Crop Improvement
|Year of Publication
|Chakrabarti, SKumar, Kardile, H, Tiwari, JKumar
|Khurana, SMPaul, Gaur, RKumar
|Plant Biotechnology: Progress in Genomic Era
Rapid progress has been made in the field of biotechnology since its inception from the tissue culture to now next-generation sequencing technology. The tools of biotechnology now routinely used to assist the conventional approaches of crop improvement and other field of science. Understanding the genetic make of crop species is more important for devising the strategies for the improvement. Advances in the sequencing technologies have helped in rapid discovery and genotyping of molecular markers and shifted the focus of molecular markers from the DNA fragment polymorphism to the sequence based polymorphism. The sequence information is also valuable source for identification of the function of the genes with functional genomics approaches. Over the time, a large amount of genomic information have been generated which can be good source for understanding the biological phenomenon by developing the simulation models. This has opened era of systems biology wherein biological phenomenon can be studied at the systems level. This will help in understanding and translating the genomic information for devising the strategies for the crop improvement. Here we have discussed the advances made in the structural and functional genomics and how this information can be integrated to understand the biological mechanism at system levels. We have also discussed the advances made in the molecular breeding and the transgenic approaches for crop improvement. At the end we have discussed the concern over the genetically modified crops and possibilities to develop the next generation crops using genomics approaches.